How Important is Language Development for Skilled Reading? Exploring the Relationship between Language Processes and Reading Skills for Children with Dyslexia
Keywords:Dyslexia, Language Skills, Semantic, Syntactic Processing, Mental Lexicon, Meaning-Related Processes
It is well documented that phonological difficulties are a recurring challenge for those with dyslexia. However, there is less focus on the important meaning-related processes associated with skilled reading such as language skills and reading comprehension. This paper draws on some of the results of a doctoral study investigating the reading and cognitive profiles of children with dyslexia to highlight the continuing need for a focus on the development language skills for these children.
Ackerman, P. T., Holloway, C. A. & Youngdahl, P. L. (2001) The double deficit hypothesis theory of reading disability does not fit all. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, Vol. 16 (3), pp. 325-327.
Araújo, S., Faísca, L., Petersson, K. M. & Reis, A. (2011) What does rapid naming tell us about dyslexia? Advances in Latin American Psychology, Vol. 29 (2), pp. 199-213.
Barth, A. E., Catts, H. W. & Anthony, J. L. (2009) The component skills underlying reading fluency in adolescent readers: A latent variable analysis. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 22, pp. 567-590.
Bexkens, A., van den Wildenberg, W. P. M. & Tijms, J. (2015) Rapid automatized naming in children with dyslexia: Is inhibitory control involved? Dyslexia, Vol. 21, 212-234.
Biemiller, A. (2011) Vocabulary development and implications for reading problems. In A. McGill-Franzen & R. L. Allington (Eds.), Handbook of reading disability research (pp. 208-218). New York: Routledge. Bishop, D. V. M. (2003) Test of reception of grammar (TROG-2) (2nd ed.). London: Harcourt Assessment.
Cain, K. (2007) Syntactic awareness and reading ability: Is there any evidence of a special relationship? Applied Pschyolinguistics, Vol. 28, pp. 679-694.
Cain, K. (2010) Reading development and difficulties. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Cain K., & Oakhill, J. (2011) Matthew effects in young readers: Reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary development. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 44 (5), pp. 431-443.
Cain K., Oakhill, J. & Elbro, C. (2015) Understanding and teaching reading comprehension: A handbook. New York: Routledge.
Cronin, V. (2011) RAN and double-deficit theory. Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol. 46 (2), pp. 182–190.
Crumpler, M. & McCarty, C. (2004) The nonword reading test. Hodder Education.
Department of Education and Skills (2011) Literacy and numeracy for learning and life: The national strategy to improve literacy and numeracy among children and young people 2011-2020. Dublin: DES.
Dunn, L. & Dunn, D. (2009) The British Picture Vocabulary Scale (3rd Ed.). London: GL Assessment.
Escribano, C. L. (2007) Evaluation of the double deficit hypothesis subtype classification of readers in Spanish. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 40(4), pp. 319-330.
Eivers, E., Close, S., Shiel, G., Millar, D., Clerkin, A., Gileece, L. & Kinary, J. (2010) The 2009 National Assessments of Mathematics and English Reading. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R. & Liao, C. (2008). Rapid naming speed and reading across languages that vary in orthographic consistency. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 21, pp. 885-903.
Guron, L. (2003) Wordchains: A word reading test for all ages. London: GL Assessment.
Hudson, R., Pullen, P., Lane, H., & Torgesen, J. (2009) The complex nature of reading fluency: A multidimensional view. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Vol. 25, pp. 4-32.
Jiminez, J. E., Hernandez-Valle, I., Rodriguez, C., Guzman, R., Diaz, A. & Ortiz, R. (2008) The double deficit hypothesis in Spanish developmental dyslexia. Topics in Language Disorders, Vol. 28(1), pp. 46-60.
Kintsch, W. (2013) Revisiting the construction-integration model of text comprehension and its implications for instruction. In D.E. Alvermann, N. J. Unrau, & R. B. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (6th Ed.). Newark, D. E: International Reading Association.
Kintsch, W. & Rawson, K. (2005) Comprehension. In M. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 209-226). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Kirby, J., Desrochers, A., Roth, L. & S. Lai. (2008) Longitudinal predictors of word reading development. Canadian Psychology, Vol. 49 (2), pp. 103-110.
Kirby, J., Georgiou, G. K., Martinussen, R., Parrila, R., Bowers, P. & Llanderl, K. (2010) Naming speed and reading: From prediction to instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 45, pp. 341-362.
Kucan, L. (2012) What is most important to know about vocabulary? The Reading Teacher, Vol. 65 (6), pp. 360-366.
LaBerge, D. & Samuels, S. J. (1974) Towards a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 293-323.
Lesaux, N. K. & Harris J. R. (2013) Linguistically diverse students’ reading difficulties: Implications for models of learning disabilities identification and effective instruction. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (2nd Ed.) (pp. 69-85). New York: Guilford Press.
Lloyd, S., & Wernham, S. (1992) The phonics handbook (Jolly Phonics). Chigwell, Essex, UK: Jolly Learning.
Lyytinen, H., Ahonen, T., Ekland, K., Gullorm, T., Kulju, P., Laakso, M-L. et al (2004) Early development of children at familial risk for dyslexia. Follow-up from birth to school age. Dyslexia, Vol. 10 (3), pp. 146-178.
McGill-Franzen, A. (2011) Preface. In A. McGill-Franzen, & R. L. Allington (Eds), Handbook of Reading Disability Research. (pp. xi-xii). New York: Routledge.
Mokhtari, K. & Thompson, H. B. (2006) How problems of reading fluency and comprehension are related to difficulties in syntactic awareness skills among fifth graders. Reading Research and Instruction, Vol. 46 (1), pp. 73-94.
Muter, V. & Snowling, M. (2009) Children at familial risk for dyslexia: Practical implications from an at-risk study. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 14, pp. 37-41.
Nation, K. (2005) Children’s reading comprehension difficulties. In M. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 248-265). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M. (2000) Factors influencing syntactic awareness skills in normal and poor comprehenders. Applied Psycholinguistics, Vol. 21, pp. 229-241.
Norton, E. S. & Wolf, M. (2012) Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency: Implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 427-452.
Ouellette, G. (2006) What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 98, pp. 554-566.
Ouellette, G. & Beers, A. (2010) A not-so-simple view of reading: How oral vocabulary and visual word recognition complicate the story. Reading and Writing, Vol. 23, pp. 189-208.
Papodopoulos, T.C., Georgiou, G. K. & Kendeou, P. (2009) Investigating the double-deficit in Greek. Journal of learning disabilities, Vol. 42(6), pp. 528-547.
Paris, S. G. (2005) Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 40(2), pp.184-202.
Perfetti, C. (2007) Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, Vol. 11, pp. 357-383.
Perfetti, C. & Stafura, J. (2014) Word knowledge in a theory of reading comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, Vol. 18 (1), pp. 22-37.
Rasinski, T. V., Homan, S. & Biggs, M. (2009) Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: Methods, materials, and evidence. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol.25, pp. 192-204.
Rasinski, T. (2012) Why reading fluency should be hot! The Reading Teacher, Vol. 65 (8), pp. 516-522
Reschly, A. L. (2010) Reading and school completion: Critical connections and Matthew effects. Reading and Writing Quarterly, Vol. 26, pp. 67-90.
Reynolds, C. (2002) Comprehensive Trail Making Test: Examiner’s manual. Austin: PRO-ED.
Reynor, E. (2014) Words matter: Learning support for the vocabulary of struggling readers. LEARN, Journal of the Irish Learning Support Association, Vol. 36, pp. 87-106.
Reynor, E. (2016) Beyond the Double Deficit Hypothesis: An Investigation of Phonological Processes, Naming Speed, and Executive Processes among Children with Reading disability. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. University College Dublin, Ireland.
Scarborough, H. S. (1990) Very early language deficits in dyslexic children. Child Development, Vol. 61 (6), pp. 1728-1743.
Schwanenflugel, P. J. & Ruston, H. P. (2007) Becoming a fluent reader: From theory to practice. In M. Kuhn & P. J. Schwanenflugel (Eds.), Fluency in the classroom (pp.1-16). New York: Guilford Press.
Snow, C. E., & Uccelli, P. (2009) The challenge of academic language. In D. R. Olsen & N. Torrence (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of literacy (pp. 112-133). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Snowling, M. J., Gallagher, A. & Frith, U. (2003) Family risk of dyslexia continuous: Individual differences in precursors of reading skill. Child Development, Vol. 74, pp. 358-373.
Snowling, M. J. & Hulme, C. (2011) Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties: Creating a virtuous circle. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 81, pp. 1-23.
Stanovich, K. E. (1986) Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 1, pp. 360-407.
Swanson, H. L., Zheng, X. & Jerman, O. (2009) Working memory, short-term memory, and reading disabilities: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42 (3), pp. 260-287.
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J. & Scanlon, D. M. (2004) Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychologyand Psychiatry, Vol. 45 (1), pp. 2–40.
Vukovic, R. K., & Siegel, L. (2006). The double deficit hypothesis: A comprehensive analysis of the evidence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 39, pp. 25-47.
Vukovic, R. K., Wilson, A. M. & Nash, K. K. (2004) Naming-speed deficits in adults with reading disabilities: A test of the double deficit hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 37, pp. 440-450.
Wagner, R., Muse, A. & Tannenbaum, K. (Eds.). (2007) Vocabulary acquisition: Implications for reading comprehension. New York: Guilford.
Weiderholt, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2001) Examiner’s manual: Gray oral reading test (4th Ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Wolf, M. (2008) Proust and the squid: The story and science of the reading brain. New York: Harper Perennial.
Wolf, M. and Bowers, P (1999) The Double-Deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 91(3), pp. 415-438.
Wolf, M. & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001) Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading Vol. 5 (3), pp. 211-239.
Wolf, M. & Denckla, M. B. (2005) Rapid automatised naming and rapid alternating stimulus tests (RAN/RAS) tests. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Zwaan, R., A. (2008) Experiential traces and mental simulations in language comprehension. In M. DeVega, A. M. Glenberg, A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Symbols, embodiment and meaning. Oxford (pp. 160-180). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 REACH: Journal of Inclusive Education in Ireland
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to REACH: Journal of Inclusive Education in Ireland retain the copyright of their article and at the same time agree to publish their articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial- NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License allowing third parties to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following terms:
- Attribution (BY): You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- NonCommercial (NC): You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- NoDerivatives (ND): If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
Learn more about Creative Commons licensing.