The Limerick Parent Toe-by-toe Intervention for Struggling Readers


  • Diarmuid O'Rourke National Educational Psychological Service
  • Dr. Aoife Olsthoorn
  • Claire O'Halloran


Toe-by-Toe reading intervention, parent, struggling readers



Parent delivered intervention offers potential as a means for directly improving the reading skills of struggling readers. The focus of this study was to examine the impact of a reading intervention when used by parents within the home setting. Specifically, this study evaluated the effects of the Toe-by-Toe Reading Progamme when implemented by parents of struggling readers. Findings showed that students participating in the Toe-by-Toe programme significantly improved on three different measures of reading word attack, word reading and reading fluency. There was less impressive growth on the reading comprehension and spelling subtests.


The results of these studies are consistent with the empirical literature on the potential efficacy of parents as tutors of their children.




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How to Cite

O’Rourke, D., Olsthoorn, D. A. ., & O’Halloran, C. . (2021). The Limerick Parent Toe-by-toe Intervention for Struggling Readers . REACH: Journal of Inclusive Education in Ireland, 34(2). Retrieved from